What is 5G network, And Why Does It Matter?
Most cell phones are currently connected to 5G networks, which are the successors of 4G networks. A cellular network provides service in cells, which are small geographic areas. Radio waves connect the Internet and telephone networks to 5G wireless devices. It is expected that download speeds will eventually reach 10 gigabits per second (Gbit/s). In addition to being faster and having a higher bandwidth than existing networks, 5G will improve Internet service in crowded areas. As bandwidth increases, these networks are expected to compete with cable internet as general internet service providers (ISPs). Moreover, M2M and IoT applications will be possible. Smartphones cannot use 5G networks with only 4G capabilities.
3GPP defines 5G as any system that uses 5G NR (5G New Radio) as 5G. Network operators can increase capacity by up to 200 percent by using millimeter frequencies, or FR2 in 5G terminology. Microwaves have a more extended range than millimeter waves, so the cells are more minor. Millimeter waves must also pass through building walls. Antennas for millimeter-wave networks are smaller than those for previous cellular networks. Some are only a few centimeters long. To increase data rates, high-frequency radio waves are used in addition to low- and medium-band frequencies. With three frequency bands – low, medium, and high – 5G networks can provide a wide range of services.
Amount of speed:
Depending on the RF channel and the load on the base station, 5G speeds could range from 50 Mbps to 1,000 Mbps (1 Gbps). With carrier aggregation and MIMO, mmWave bands can reach speeds up to 4 Gbps. A standard 5G (mid-band) technology delivers 10 to 1,000 Mbps, providing a more excellent range than mmWave. In 2022, several US operators will deploy C-Bands in sub-6 bands (n77/n78). FCC safety concerns delayed Verizon and AT&T’s deployment of C-Band in January 2022. There is a more excellent range for low bands (such as n5), but their speeds are lower than those of the mid and high bands.
Error rate and range:
Several factors determine the range of 5G: the transmit power, the frequency, and the interference that is present. The mmWave band (e.g., band n258) has a shorter range than the mid-band band (e.g., band n78), which has a shorter range than the low-band band (e.g., band n5). Cellular service providers use several simulators and driving tests to measure the performance of 5G precisely. A modulation and coding scheme (MCS) that minimizes bit error rate (BLER) is used for 5G. A transmitter switches to a lower MCS when the error rate crosses a threshold, which is less likely to introduce errors than a higher MCS. In this way, speed is sacrificed to ensure that the error rate is almost zero.
Devices that support 5G:
A database tracking 5G device launches worldwide was released by the Global Mobile Suppliers Association (GMSA) in March 2019. There will be 33 5G devices offered by 23 vendors in different models, including regional variants, as stated by the GSA. There were a total of seven 5G devices announced at the event, including phones, hotspots, and indoor devices. Additionally, the company offers customer premises equipment, modules, snap-on dongles and adapters, and USB terminals. A total of 56 vendors announced 129 5G devices in October 2019. Currently, four commercial 5G modem chipsets and one commercial processor/platform are available on the market, with more launches planned soon.
In March 2020, Samsung released its first all-5G smartphone, the Galaxy S20. It has been reported that 5G is more expensive than 4G, according to Business Insider. Compared to the Samsung Galaxy S10e, which starts at US$750, the Samsung Galaxy S10 series begins at US$1,000. On March 19, the Nokia-maker HMD Global announced the Nokia 8.3 5G, which it said had more 5G compatibility than any other phone. As of this year’s first half, the mid-range model will be available for €599 in the Eurozone and compatible with all 5G bands between 600 MHz and 3.8 GHz. This feature distinguishes the OnePlus 8 T SE from other phones. Many phone manufacturers support 5G technology. 5G is supported by Apple iPhone 12 and later versions. It is compatible with Google Pixel phones as of version 5. Read more
Level of intensity:
6 GHz is the frequency range FR1, also known as sub-6, has a maximum channel bandwidth of 100 MHz in this crowded band. In this range, 5G is most commonly used between 3.3 and 4.2 GHz. 3.5 GHz is the frequency used by Korean carriers in the n78 band. Mid-band frequencies are higher frequencies not used in previous generations of mobile phones. Frequency range: 24–71 GHz
The 3GPP Release 15 specification supports two-channel aggregation with FR2’s minimum channel bandwidth of 50 MHz and a maximum channel bandwidth of 400 MHz. Data transfer is faster at higher frequencies. In this frequency range, a millimeter wave has a wavelength between 4 and 12 millimeters. Click here to read more.